Learn How LED Lights Work – Features, Benefits & Detail

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have become an integral part of our daily lives. From the indicators on our electronic devices to the traffic signals on the streets, LED technology is everywhere. One of its most prominent applications is in LED signs, which are used widely for advertising and information display. This article delves into the intricate world of LEDs, presenting an in-depth look at their operation, advantages, and applications in LED neon sign creation.

  • LED lights are chips with incomplete circuit junctions that light up when electricity is supplied
  • LED lights are long lasting, efficient and require few materials to make
  • LED lights are bright and their color is consistent
  • LED lights typically have a lifespan of 40,000 to 100,000 light hours

Section 1: Understanding the Basics of How LED Lights Work – LED Technology

LEDs are essentially tiny bulbs that fit comfortably into an electric circuit. However, unlike traditional incandescent bulbs, they lack filaments that wear out over time. Instead, they are illuminated exclusively by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material. This unique property not only increases their lifespan significantly but also makes them more energy-efficient.

Subsection 1.1: How Do LEDs Produce Light?

When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads of an LED, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This process is known as electroluminescence and the color of the light, corresponding to the energy of the photon, is determined by the energy bandgap of the semiconductor.

Subsection 1.2: Structure of an LED

An LED is fabricated from a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. The p-type (positive) side is dominated by positive “holes,” while the n-type (negative) side contains free electrons. Under normal conditions, the p-n junction acts as a barrier preventing current flow. However, when a voltage is applied to overcome this barrier, current flows and light is emitted.

Section 2: Why LEDs are Superior to Traditional Light Sources

Compared to incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), LEDs have several distinct advantages. They are more efficient, longer-lasting, and more environmentally friendly.

Subsection 2.1: Efficiency of LEDs

LEDs outshine traditional light sources in terms of efficiency. In incandescent bulbs, light production involves generating a lot of heat. This energy is wasted unless you’re using the lamp as a heater. LEDs, on the other hand, generate very little heat. Therefore, a higher percentage of the electrical power is used to produce light, reducing electricity demands considerably.

Subsection 2.2: Longevity of LEDs

The lifespan of an LED significantly surpasses that of an incandescent bulb. While a 60-watt incandescent bulb can light up for about 1,200 hours, a LED bulb of the same light output can last up to 25,000 hours. This means one LED bulb can last as long as 21 incandescent bulbs burned consecutively.

Subsection 2.3: Environmental Impact of LEDs

Unlike CFLs, which contain toxic mercury, LEDs contain no hazardous substances, making them safer for the environment. In addition, their long lifespan means fewer resources are used for manufacturing, packaging, and transporting replacements.

Section 3: The Intricacies of LED Packages

An LED package is an assembly of one or more LED dies, mechanical supports, electrical connections, thermal conduction paths, and optical encapsulation. The packaging process significantly influences the thermal performance, color quality, optical efficiency, and lumen maintenance of an LED.

Subsection 3.1: Different Types of LED Packages

Selection of an LED package architecture depends on the light output, optical design, form factor, and application scenario of the lighting system. The four main LED package platforms used as light sources for LED lamps and luminaires include mid-power LEDs, high-power LEDs, chip-on-board (COB) LEDs, and chip-scale package (CSP) LEDs.

Subsection 3.2: The Role of LED Packages in Thermal Management

One of the major challenges of LED technology is heat management. Heat is a byproduct of LED lighting, and if not properly managed, it can accelerate various failure mechanisms such as thermal droop, lumen depreciation, color shift, and premature system failure. Therefore, efficient thermal management is crucial for the performance and lifespan of LED lights.

Section 4: The Color Quality of LED Signs

The ability of an LED to faithfully reproduce the color of various objects is referred to as color rendering or color quality. The Color Rendering Index (CRI) is a measure of a light source’s ability to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source. In general, light with a minimum CRI of 90 is necessary for most applications.

Subsection 4.1: The Limitations of the CRI Standard

Although CRI is a widely used standard, it has its limitations. It does not consider all colors in its calculation, leading to a skewed representation of a light source’s color rendering abilities. For instance, it fails to consider how well a source renders saturated colors like red.

Subsection 4.2: The Implications of Poor Color Quality

Poor color quality can affect visual comfort, aesthetic judgment, and task performance. LED lights with a low CRI can make everything in a space appear dull or lifeless. They may fail to bring out the rich colors in artwork, fabrics, and home decor. A dditionally, they can affect tasks that involve color selection or design.

Section 5: Dealing with Light Flicker in LED Signs

LED lights operate through high-frequency on/off cycles that fuse into a steady and continuous source of light. However, any changes in forward current supplied by an LED driver can lead to changes in light output, which may cause the light to flicker. Although flicker may not be noticeable to the human eye, it can have unwanted side effects such as eye strain and headaches.

Subsection 5.1: Causes of Light Flicker

Light flicker in LED signs can be caused by a variety of factors, including voltage fluctuations, residual ripples in the LED load, or incompatibility between the dimming circuit and the LED driver. Most often, flicker is not visible to the human eye because it occurs at frequencies above 80 Hz.

Subsection 5.2: The Impact of Light Flicker

Continuous exposure to flicker can strain the human eye and cause fatigue. In certain populations, flicker can trigger migraines and photosensitive epilepsy. The phantom array effect produced by high-frequency flicker may lead to distraction when driving at night.

Section 6: Addressing Glare in LED Signs

Glare is a common issue in LED lighting. Since LEDs are high-intensity light sources, they can provoke more discomfort than conventional light sources. High-luminance sources close to the direction of view can be distracting and uncomfortable. Therefore, optical design for LED luminaires focuses on reducing glare.

Subsection 6.1: The Impact of Glare

Glare can result in fatigue and, in some cases, negatively impact health, safety, and productivity. Infants and children, who have not yet developed aversion responses and whose lenses cannot selectively filter harmful wavelengths, are particularly susceptible to photobiological damages from glare.

Subsection 6.2: Mitigating Glare

To mitigate glare, LED luminaires are often designed such that the LEDs are in close proximity to lenses and diffusers for a compact form factor. This makes it difficult to reduce the total amount of light entering the eye. Therefore, additional methods such as using shades, baffles, or louvers are employed to reduce or eliminate the direct view of the LEDs from outside the luminaire.

Section 7: Choosing the Right Color Temperature for LED Signs

The color appearance of a white light source is quantified by its correlated color temperature (CCT), expressed in degrees Kelvin (K). The choice of CCT can be influenced by the application. In residential and hospitality settings, lower CCTs, i.e., 2700K – 3000K, are typically used to create a warm and cozy environment. Offices, industrial facilities, and classrooms typically use neutral or cool white light, i.e., 3500K – 4500K, to increase alertness and concentration.

Subsection 7.1: The Impact of High CCT Lighting

High CCT lighting, particularly above 5000K, can disrupt the body’s circadian rhythm. Nighttime exposure to cool white light can block the release of the hormone melatonin, which helps regulate sleep. Circadian disruption has been linked to increased incidences of diseases in modern society.

Subsection 7.2: The Need for Lower CCT Lighting

There is a growing recognition of the need for lower CCT lighting, particularly in residential settings. High-quality LED lights can be formulated to emit a light spectrum comparable to natural daylight, providing a more comfortable and healthier lighting environment.

Section 8: The Role of Lighting Control in LED Signs

LED lights can react instantaneously to changes in power input, allowing their light output to be controlled in a dynamic way. Controls and dimming can be easily integrated into LED drivers to provide adaptive and dynamic lighting.

Subsection 8.1: Methods of LED Light Control

The light output of LEDs can be adjusted using AC dimming methods or DC dimming methods. AC dimming uses phase control dimmers to chop an AC waveform to reduce power to the light load. DC dimming uses constant current reduction or pulse-width modulation to adjust the light output.

Subsection 8.2: The Advent of Smart Lighting

The trend towards the Internet of Things (IoT) has brought a new perspective for lighting control. Sensor integration, device interoperability, and software development are some of the new challenges introduced by IoT. Smart lighting systems increasingly rely on ubiquitous wireless connectivity to implement advanced features.

Section 9: The Applications of LED Signs

LED signs have become an essential tool for businesses, providing an energy-efficient means of advertising and information display. They are widely used in various industries, from retail and hospitality to entertainment and transportation.

Subsection 9.1: LED Neon Signs

LED neon signs are a popular choice for businesses looking to attract attention and make a bold statement. They offer all the visual appeal of traditional neon signs without the high energy consumption, maintenance issues, and environmental concerns associated with neon gas tubes.

Subsection 9.2: Other Uses of LED Lights

Aside from signage, LEDs are used in a wide variety of applications, including digital clocks, remote controls, television screens, and traffic lights. They are also becoming increasingly popular in residential and commercial lighting due to their energy efficiency, long lifespan, and versatility.

Section 10: The Future of LED Signs

With ongoing advancements in LED technology, the possibilities for LED signs are limitless. They are set to become brighter, more efficient, and more versatile, opening up new opportunities for businesses to communicate with their audience.

Subsection 10.1: Advancements in LED Technology

Technological innovations are continually enhancing the performance and capabilities of LEDs. These advancements include the development of more efficient and longer-lasting LEDs, improvements in color quality, and the integration of smart technologies for more flexible and customizable lighting solutions.

Subsection 10.2: The Growing Popularity of LED Signs

As businesses recognize the benefits of LED signs – including their energy efficiency, longevity, and visual impact – their popularity is set to continue to grow. This growth is expected to be driven by the increasing demand for dynamic and eye-catching advertising solutions, as well as the ongoing shift towards more sustainable and energy-efficient lighting solutions.

Section 11: Conclusion

The world of LED signs is a fascinating one, underpinned by complex and innovative technology. From their operation and advantages to their applications and future potential, LEDs offer immense possibilities for businesses looking to make a lasting impression. As technology continues to evolve, we can expect to see even more exciting developments in the field of LED signage.  If you’re looking, then click here for your own custom neon sign – contact our team.

Section 12: FAQs about LED Signs

  • What are LED signs? LED signs are digital displays that use light-emitting diodes to generate text, images, or animations for advertising or information display purposes.
  • How long do LED signs last? An LED sign can last up to 25,000 hours or almost three years of constant use, significantly longer than traditional signage methods.
  • Can LED signs be used outdoors? Yes, LED signs can be used both indoors and outdoors. They are designed to withstand various weather conditions and offer excellent visibility even in bright sunlight.
  • Are LED signs worth the investment? Yes, while LED signs may be more expensive upfront than traditional signage methods, their energy efficiency, long lifespan, and visual impact make them a worthwhile investment in the long run.
  • Can the brightness of LED signs be controlled? Yes, the light output of LEDs can be easily controlled, allowing for dynamic and adaptive lighting. This makes LED signs ideal for businesses that want to customize their signage to suit different times of day or promotional activities.


Christopher is our main author, with over 10 years working with businesses and consulting online.  Christopher has a deep understanding of LED lights, LED neon flex, and neon signs and how they can be best used to help business, home, and event decor.

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